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Organization process definition is the five core wealth of software process: organization standard software process, software life cycle, the standard software process tailoring guidelines and criteria, software process database, and software process documentation library.
1, the general picture of organizational process definition
Organization process definition aims to develop and maintain a user-friendly software process wealth, which aims to improve process performance across the various and cumulative for the organization's long-term benefit basis. Organization process definition include the development and maintenance of the organization standard software process and related processes of wealth, such as: a description of the software life cycle, process tailoring guidelines and criteria, organization software process database and software process related documentation library.
Organization process definition are:
鈥?Develop and maintain the organization's standard software process;
Collect and review the software project using the organizational standard software process information and make it shared.
1.1 Basic Concepts
Organizational standard software process. Organizational standard software process is the operational definition of basic processes, the basic process of guiding the organization to build a software program for all common software process. Description of the software process software process of each project is expected will include the basic elements of the software process.
Software process elements. Software process element is a description of the elements of the software process. Each process element includes a set of well-defined, limited and closely related operations (such as software, the elements of software design elements, etc.). Description of the process elements may be templates to be filled, pending the completion of the fragments, to be refined in the abstract, to be a complete description of changes or modifications have been used without a complete description.
Software Process Definition Project. Project defined software process is used on the project's operational definition of software process. Project has been defined software process is a well characterized and has been understood software process, software standards, procedures, tools and methods to be described. Organizational standard software process by tailoring to fit the specific characteristics of the project approach to develop it.
1.2 Software Process wealth
The so-called wealth of software process, by definition, is to organize the process in the software process improvement obtained through the accumulation of used to guide the process of software projects and other important documents and data information. Any of the organizations thought that in the process definition and maintenance of software entities can be useful components of the process of wealth. Software process for software projects of wealth to developing, tailoring, maintenance and implementation of software process to provide comprehensive guidance.
Software Process wealth includes the following five aspects:
* Organization's standard software process. Established by the organization of a software program for all common software process.
* The software life cycle. Defined by the organization's software development process, activities and tasks of the structural framework.
* Standard software process tailoring guidelines and criteria; to guide the project to the organization standard software process tailoring, to form a project for the definition of the software project characteristics of the process.
* Software process database. Organizations to collect information on the software process and its software work products generated data and the establishment of the database.
* Software Process document library. In order to store the items within the organization may be useful in the process of documentation, as well as organization-wide sharing of information stored in documents created document library. The relationship between the wealth of software process as shown below:
1), SEPG software development and maintenance process of wealth;
2), the project defined by the organization standard software process and software life cycle process from cutting;
3), the reference library of software process and software process documents the contents of the database to help you define the project's software process;
4), the project uses the software process the contents of the document library staff training;
5), through the control of the project tracking database software process statistical data and historical data to assess the project;
6), project implementation or after some of the software process suggestions and issues records, to help improve the organization's standard software process;
7) After the end of the project, the project will be added to all measurement data, software process database;
2, organizational standard software process
2.1 Software Process Elements
Organizational standard software process is defined for all projects within the organization a number of common elements of the software process. We have identified elements of the software process into the following three categories:
* The main elements of the software process: including project estimation, project planning, the discovery process, requirements definition, conceptual design, detailed design, implementation process, the deployment / maintenance process
鈥?Support of software process elements: including configuration management, documentation, quality assurance, testing, group coordination, Peer / Progress review.
鈥?The organization's software process elements: infrastructure, senior management, software process improvement and training.
The relationship between the process elements as shown:
2.2 Organization of standard software process
Organizational standard software process is the organization of software development and maintenance projects of all common software process, software process is the basis for project definition. It guarantees the continuity of the activities of organizational processes, the organization software process improvement measurement and long-term basis.
Software process architecture is the organization standard software process for high-level (ie general) description. It describes the organization standard software process software process elements in order, interface, interdependent relations and other relations. The following is a standard software process architecture diagram:
3, the software life cycle
Software life cycle refers to the entire process of software development, activities and tasks of the structural framework. Software development including discovery, definitions, concepts, design, and implementation phases.
Select an appropriate software life cycle is critical to the project. Early in the project planning, it should be used to determine the project's software life cycle, co-ordinate the overall development process planning projects. An organization is usually more customers to produce software, but also the diverse customer requirements, a software life cycle is often not appropriate for all situations.
Based on the characteristics and needs of each project development cycle characteristics, providing two alternative software life cycle, their characteristics are as follows:
3.1 Waterfall Model
The software life cycle activities in accordance with the provisions of a number of fixed-order phase connection, shaped like a waterfall and eventually get software products. Principle as shown on the right.
* Emphasize the development stage;
* Emphasis on early survey plans and needs;
* Emphasis on product testing;
* Depends on the needs of early stage only a survey can not meet the changing needs;
鈥?Since a single process, developing the lessons learned can not be applied to the product feedback process;
* Risk is often late to reveal the late development stage, thus losing the opportunity to rectify as soon as possible;
3.1.4 What types of projects for
* Demand for simple and clear, and early in the project can clear all of the requirements;
* Review and document control requirements phase do;
* Does not require secondary development;
3.2 Iterative Model
Software developers according to the needs of users, the first development of the core system. When the core system in operation, the user trial of the completion of their work, and propose refined system to enhance the system capacity requirements. Software developers based on user feedback, implementation of the development of the iterative process. Each iteration by the definitions, concepts, design, implementation stages of composition, to add a definable whole system, to manage the Zi 闆? As shown below:
* To help guide high-quality product requirements. If not possible to clarify at the outset, demand for all products, they can be made in batches. For products that demand has been made, may be based on the prototype at this stage the trial of interest.
* Development of the lessons learned can be applied to the product feedback cycle to the next, greatly improve the quality and efficiency.
* Allows the user to a group of functional development in the new test, immediately participate in verification, in order to provide valuable feedback.
* Make sales likely to advance, as in product development can be achieved in the latter part of the main features of the product contains the prototype for display and movement of customer trial.
* Risk management can be obtained at an early stage project process data, may accordingly follow the development cycle to make more realistic estimates.
* Provide an opportunity to take early preventive measures to increase the probability of success of the project. If the risk management of funds or time has been found to exceed the tolerance level, you can decide to adjust the development of follow-up, or at an appropriate moment of the end of development, there are still a part of the function can work products.
* Psychological, developers saw an early prototype of the product, is an inspiration.
If demand for the product is not entirely clear at the outset, then, will bring difficulties and reduce the overall design integrity of product design, and thus affect the performance of optimization and product maintainability.
If the lack of a strict process management, then, the life cycle model is likely to degenerate into a kind of primitive unplanned "test - wrong - change" mode.
If the uncontrolled development of the user access to features not yet been tested and stable, may be developers and users have a negative impact.
* Psychological, may have an effect best efforts of the idea that although all of the features can not be completed, but still a part of the function and fashioned products
3.2.4 What types of projects for
* Pre-defined products could not complete all requirements;
* Multi-phase development plan.
4, the standard software process tailoring guidelines and criteria
Cutting guide is intended to guide the project to the organization standard software process tailoring, to form the project definition for the project software process characteristics.
Organizational standard software process is common to describe the level, so the project may not directly use it, cutting guide is to help organize the project cut the standard software process, software process to form a project definition.
Cutting guide can guide the software projects in the following areas:
* From the approved use of the software life cycle be used to select a;
* Tailoring and refining organizational standard software process and the selected software life cycle to fit the specific characteristics of the project.
These guidelines and criteria to ensure that all software projects in the planning, implementation, measurement, analysis and definition of software process improvement projects have a common time base.
4.1 The cutting process
1, according to tailoring guidelines and criteria for tailoring the organization standard software process to fit the specific characteristics of the project. Project managers and designers in the SEPG with the assistance of the task.
2, will collate the results of cutting the document, that is, the definition of software process project.
3, the definition of software process audit project. Review of key participants, including SEPG, project managers and designers. Audit Checkpoints are: whether the same standard software process, whether the characteristics of the project, and other relevant content. If the review does not pass, then return to the cutting process to modify.
4, the definition of software applications and monitor the project implementation process. In the implementation process, project manager / designer to implement the measure required to record data (see the specific content of the database and other software process the course content of the project metrics), while the SEPG track record of the problem is to improve the organization's standard software process.
Cutting guidelines and criteria 4.2
鈥?Select the life cycle. According to the actual characteristics and the different features of the life cycle to choose a life cycle type.
鈥?How to cut and refine standard software process?
o Project-based features cutting. Project is characterized by cutting the starting point, including the size of the project (such as large, medium, small, etc.), project type (such as new development, maintenance, etc.), as well as technical difficulties, product type, the project cycle and other factors.
o clear the object can be cut. Cut object can be defined the scope of cutting can cut the object is not limited to process elements and activities, including reference standards, methods and tools, templates and other products and output
o determine the cutting elements considered. Cutting element defines the cutting direction and scale. For example, a cutting object, its scope, frequency, are the cutting elements of a formal degree. For a small project development experience, may decrease the technical aspects of the frequency
o the decision to cut the risk-based considerations. Risks can be cut based on the appropriateness of testing. Adjust the process or activity or abandon it through analysis of the risks and effects make a decision.
Note: The specific tailoring of the process and the concrete operation will be "integrated software management" process described in detail. Here only the guidelines and criteria for tailoring the software process as a wealth to do a brief introduction.
5, software process database
Software process database is to collect information on software process and its software work products generated data, and make available a database established.
Content of the database include:
鈥?Project software process data:
o costs, LOE, human resources;
o demand for quantity and quantity changing;
o Project scope, including program size and the size of the document;
o test the depth and breadth;
o defect data;
o computer resources;
* Organization Software Process data:
o regular process of tracking data;
o Software Process Improvement process data records, including the issue of records, improved events, etc.;
o SEPG event records;
6, software process documentation library
The purpose of the document library:
* Cut the organization of future projects to help the process of standard software;
鈥?The entire organization of software engineering knowledge sharing and training.
The contents of the document library: (divided into two categories)
* Projects within the organization may be useful in the process of documentation, especially with the organization standard software process-related documentation. Such documents include: project definition software process description, can recommend the best cases (such as easy to use templates, standard, audit records, the report concluded, etc.). End of the project, jointly by the SEPG and the project team to recommend and collect, SEPG to store to the document library.
鈥?The organization-wide sharing of information stored in the document. Including the document are: software project development plan, the project group's training materials to share with all the technical experience or information. In the project, the project team as a unit to collect. After such projects, the SEPG unified storage to the document library.
Maintenance of document libraries: the SEPG is responsible.
Shared document library: to read the whole company to share, read and write shared maintenance personnel.
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